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1. do의 주의 용법
(1)도치구문: little,never,nor,not,only,well등의 부사(구)등이 문두에 나올 때
(부정)부사 +do[does, did]+ 주어+ 동사원형의 어순이 된다.
She never went there.
= Never did she go there.
I remember him well.
= Well do I remember him.
(2)대동사: 반복을 피하기위해 선행하는 동사 대신사용
He paid double the price (that) I formerly did.(=paid)
I do hate him.
He worked well whenever he did work.
Do you remember me?
She doesn't seem to know that.
2. have의 주의용법
(1)소유이외의 뜻을 갖는 경우
She had a good time.(=enjoy)
We had a slight earthquake last night.(=experience)
I had a letter this morning.(=receive)
Let him have his breakfast.(=eat)
Will you come and have tea with me?(=drink)
He has no mathematics.(=know)
Now I have you.(=understand)
(2)don't have[need] to R=need not R=have not to R: -할 필요가 없다
You don't have to pay any attention to what he says.
(3)have only to R=all 주어 have to do is (to) R:-하기만 하면 된다
You have only to pay your debts.
= All you have to do is (to) pay your debts.
3. may, might의 용법
(1)허가(=be allowed[permitted] to R): -해도 좋다
May I come in?
- Yes, you may.<허락>
- No, you may not.<불허> - No, you must not.<강한금지>
cf. 허가의 의미 일 때 과거, 미래는 be allowed[permitted] to 를 사용
Everyone was allowed to use my book.
We will be allowed to go swimming this summer.
(2)(불확실한)추측: -일 지도 모른다
She may be rich.<현재의 추측>
= It is probable[possible] that she is rich.
She may have been rich.<과거의 추측>
= She is probable[possible] that she was[has been] rich.
cf. She might have met him.<가정법과거완료>
May you live long!
(May) God bless you!
However difficult the work may be, he will go through it.
Leave the book here that I may read it later.
1) -하는 것도 당연하다
* may well[reasonably, properly, naturally]+ R
=have good[every] reason to R
=-------, and well S may[and with (good) reason].
=It is natural[no wonder, not surprising, a matter of course] that S should +R
=It is natural for 목적격 to R
* He may well be proud of his wife.
=He has good reason to be proud of his wife.
=He is proud of his wife, and well he may.
=It is natural that he should be proud of his wife.
=It is natural for him to be proud of his wife.
cf. He may well get angry.<현재>(화를 내는 것)
He may well have got angry.<과거>(화를 냈던 것)
2) -하는 편이 더 좋다
* may[might] as well+ R=had better+ R=do well to R
=It would be better[advisable] for 목적격 to R
=It would be wise of 목적격 to R
You may as well come at five.
=You had better come at five.
=You (would) do well to come at five.
=It would be better for you to come at five.
=It would be wise of you to come at five.
3) B하는것 보다 A하는것이 더 좋다
* may[might]as well A as B ; A, B 모두 동사원형
You may as well not know a thing at all as know it imperfectly.
(일을 불완전하게 아는것 보다 전혀 모르는 편이 더 좋다)
You might as well expect a wolf to be generous as ask him for money.
(그에게 돈을 요구하는것 보다 늑대에게 관대함을 기대하는 편이 더 좋다)
4. can, could의 용법
(1) 가능, 능력(be able to R)
I can read English.<현재>
I was able to read English.<과거>
I will be able to read English.<미래>
cf. can 은 주어로 사람, 사물 모두 올 수 있으나, be able to R 는 사람주어만 쓴다.
(2) 추측; 의문문, 부정문
How can it be true?<강한 부정적 추측>
He cannot be honest.<현재의 추측>
= It is impossible that he is honest.
He cannot have said so.<과거의 추측>
= It is impossible that he said[has said] so.
(3) 허가;-해도 좋다
You can go now.
Can I have a glass of water?
Could you show me the way to the station?<공손한 표현>
(4) 관용적 표현
1) -하지 않을 수 없다
* cannot help[avoid, forbear, resist] -ing
= cannot keep[abstain, refrain] from -ing
= cannot (help[choose]) but + R
= can do nothing but + R
= have nothing to do but + R
= have no (other) choice[alternative,option,resort,substitute,way] to R
= There is nothing[no help] for it but to R
= Nothing remains but to R
= cannot do otherwise than (to) R
I cannot help laughing at the story.
=I cannot but laugh at the story.
2) ... 하면 반드시[언제나] --- 한다
* cannot[never] ... without -ing[but S + V]
= Whenever[Everytime, Eachtime, (At) Any time (when)] S+V..., S+V---
= When S+V ..., S + always + V ---
She never goes out without losing her purse.
= She never goes out but she loses her purse.
= Whenever she goes out, she loses her purse.
= When she goes out, she always loses her purse.
3) 아무리 -해도 지나치지 않다
* cannot ... too + 형용사/부사
= cannot ... enough[sufficiently, to excess, excessively, over-R]
We cannot praise him too much.
= We cannot praise him enough.
= We cannot overpraise him.
5. must[have to, has to, had to] 의 용법
(1) 의무, 필요: -해야 한다(must+의지동사)
You must do it at once.=You have to do it at once.<의무>
= It is necessary that you should do it at once.
You must not tell a lie.<금지>
You need not pay the bill at once.
= You don`t have to pay the bill at once<불필요>
cf. must 와 시제관계
현재: must[have to] 과거: had to 미래: will[shall] have to
(2) 추측: -임에 틀림없다(must+무의지동사)
She must be honest.<현재의 추측>
= It is certain that she is honest.
= I am sure[certain] that she is honest.
She cannot be honest.<must+R의 반대>
=It is impossible that she is honest.
She must have been honest.<과거의 추측>
= It is certain that she was[has been] honest.
= I am sure[certain] that she was[has been] honest.
She cannot have been honest.<must have +P.P.의 반대>
= It is impossible that she was[has been] honest.
주의: must가 추측의 의미일 때는 have to로 대체 할 수 없음.
cf. needs: 반드시,꼭
She must needs come.=She needs must come.<꼭 -한다고 고집하다>
(3) 당연,필연:반드시 -하다
You must lose your position if you steal.
(도둑질 하다가는 반드시 자리를 잃게 될 것이다.)
6. ought to 의 용법
(1) 의무; -해야한다
He ought to pay his debts.
You ought to obey the law.
(2) 당연: -하는 것이 당연하다
He ought to succeed if everything goes all right.
You ought to be hungry now, because you don`t eat lunch.
(3) 추측:-임에 틀림없다, -일 듯하다
They ought to win.(그들은 이길 것이 틀림없다.)
He ought to have arrived now.(그들은 지금쯤 도착했을 것이다.)
(4) 과거의 유감표시
* ought to have P.P. = should have P.P. : - 했어야 했는데 (못해서 유감이다)
You ought to have done that.(너는 그것을 했어야 했는데)
You ought not to have gone there.(그곳에 가지 말았어야 했는데)
cf. ought to 의 부정문, 의문문
Such things ought not to be done.<부정문>
Ought I start at once?<의문문>
7. will, shall 의 용법
(1) will의 용법
1) 습성, 경향
Accidents will happen.(사고는 일어나기 마련이다.)
2) 주어의 의지, 고집, 거부
No matter what you may say, I will go there by myself.
I am trying to take the horse out of the stable, but it will not come out.
The theater will admit three thousand people.
(2) shall의 용법
1) 말하는 사람의 강한 의지
I shall never forget your kindness.
2) 결정, 결의, 명령, 경고
The fine shall not exceed 100 dollars.
The association shall be called the E.E.S.
Ask, and it shall be given you.
8. would, should의 용법
(1) would의 용법
1) 과거의 불규칙적인 습관: (often, sometimes, frequently등과 함께) -하곤 했다
He would often take a walk in the afternoon.
2) 주어의 의지,고집,주장: -하려고 했다
He knocked at the door, but she would not let him in.
The hall would seat 500 hundred people.
No stone would shatter the glass
4) 공손한 요구
Would you tell me how to use it?
He who would succeed must study hard.
Would that I were young again.
6) 현재의 약한 추측: 아마 -일 것이다
That`s what most men would say.
* would[should] like to R :-하고 싶다
* would[had] rather[sooner, liefer] A than B : B 보다 A 하는 편이 더 낫다
= would[had] as soon[lief] A as B cf. A, B 모두 동사원형
I would[should] like to meet her.
I would rather die than live in dishonor.
= I would as soon die as live dishonor.
(2) should의 용법
1) 의무; -해야 한다(=ought to)
You should obey traffic regulations while driving.
Teachers should be careful not to discourage students.
2) 추측: 아마 - 할 것이다
Shortly I get used to the work.
He is over 60. I should guess.
3) 의아, 의외, 놀라움
Why should he spend so much time in watching television?
Who should come in but my teacher himself?
4) 목적, 의도
Be careful lest you fall from the tree.
5) should have p.p.; (과거에 실현되지 못한 일에 대한) 비난, 후회, 유감
You should[ought to] have done it.
= I am sorry (that) you did not do it.
= I wish (that) you had done it.
You should not have gone there.
= I am sorry (that) you went there.
= I wish (that) you had not gone there.
6) 이성적, 감정적 판단의 should
* 형식; It is + 이성적, 감정적 판단을 나타내는 어구 + that S + (should) + R
종류: necessary, important, natural, right, wrong, rational, proper,
surprising, strange, odd, a pity
It is strange that she (should) keep her bed.
It is right that you should decline his proposal.
cf. that 절 이하가 객관적인 사실을 나타낼 때는 직설법동사를 사용한다.
It is strange that he should have failed in the exam.<주관적관점>;내생각에
It is strange that he failed in the exam.<객관적관점>:누가 보아도
7) 제안, 주장, 요구, 명령, 결정을 뜻 하는 명사절에서
* 형식: 주어